The Election and what the Federal Government doesn’t want you to know

The Election and what the Federal Government doesn’t want you to know


Today Politics are like muffins that have been poisoned and put into a mix with those that are not, you will know you have been poisoned, but not until it is too late.


   My fellow Americans, I would like to state that I am not a writer of books, I am not a talk show host, and I am not a reporter or a politician. I am a regular guy, a retired Navy man from New England. I have a family; I love with all my heart. I am not wealthy nor am I poor. I am a man who works hard for what he has and I try to do my best by my family. I am a Patriot and even though, I am a New England Patriots fan that’s not what I am referring too. I believe in the rights given to me by my Creator, and that I am beholden to no one, let alone a government. I am a product of government schooling and so found it hard to be successful without extra hard work, and my own desire to succeed. I also knew very little about how government worked and what our founders intended for our society. I also had very little education on finances and other ways of society that dealt with money, Such as taxes, until I got upset with our government, pissing my hard work away.

 I believe, I have learned a lot through my observations and paying attention to the world around me, I have also learned from my travels abroad, and my socializing with people from the countries I have visited. I have read books, articles and used the internet to aid in my findings and beliefs. I have had my financial issues and have learned and still am learning in these areas. But, I do know that if I was to run my family’s affairs as the government does, I would be homeless, car-less and maybe without my family.


 So, here I am, writing this column, or should I say what started out to be a column, but since, I have strong convictions in my belief in Freedom and the Constitution. I believe we are really running out of time to save this Republic and the debt, and the lack of freedom we are going to provide our children and grandchildren. It is getting way out of control. Although it has become longer than I intended, I hope you read this with an open mind and that you also research and form your own opinions. The following is how a common man who is frustrated with our government, and the theft of his hard earned money feels. A corrupt and tyrannical government can abuse its people and ignore the Laws our founders wrote to prevent this injustice, We the people need to tend to the sloppy and wasteful spending habits of our federal government, and it’s policies to provide for those who are not willing to make their own way. I am especially hard on the Democrats because they are no longer democrats that party as you will see has been taken over by a progressive form of Socialism. Yes, for many years the Republicans can assume blame for the tearing down of this nation, one law, one policy, one regulation at a time, failing to hold true, to the teachings of our founders.


  To the great people of This Republic, We soon will have to make a decision, as to who our next leaders are. We need to all make our decisions from our heart, and with our God given intelligence and not on emotion. Yes, there are many things one can say are unjust, unfair, not right, as a whole, but the knowledge of how we have gotten here is always ignored and replaced, with the emotions and the untruths being passed, especially by our leaders and our current media services, who are not without biases and control from outside sources. It is easy to fall prey to such lies and deception, while you and your family are struggling. When we make our decisions these next several months we should research the truth on our own. We should not let outside influence sway us, this includes our ministers, priests, rabbis, our community leaders, our local news, the politicians running for office, our employers, our Unions (especially the Unions, Who spend your money for a candidate, you may oppose), We need to vote on the facts and we need to error on the Side of Freedom. Our Nation was created by the courage of few and has become the most powerful, Intellectual, industrious and free nation in the World. We have lost many a family members throughout the years, with the founding and then, preserving of our beliefs and our freedoms, from our enemies abroad. And yet we do nothing to stop the enemies from within. Our Nation was founded in the Belief that “All men were created equal,” That all should pursue happiness.


At a time when our worldly masters in England, will be satisfied with nothing less than depravation of American freedom, it seems highly necessary that something be done to maintain liberty. “ George Washington.

“Among the natural rights of the colonist are these: First a right to life, secondly to liberty, thirdly to property; together with the right to defend them in the best manner they can.” Samuel Adams.

“Liberty must at all hazards be supported. We have a right to it, derived from our maker. But if we had not, our fathers have earned and bought it for us, at the expense of their ease, their estates, their pleasure, and their blood. “John Adams

“If ye love wealth better than liberty, the tranquility of servitude better than the animating contest of freedom, go from us in peace. We ask not your counsels or arms. May your chains sit lightly upon you, and may posterity forget that you were our countrymen!” Samuel Adams.

“The very definition of tyranny is when all powers are gathered under one place.” James Madison.


  Our Forefathers, Sought to create this land of opportunity for a free society, free from tyranny, free to practice religion freely without persecutions, free to own property and to defend it and your family. Free to speak your mind in a public forum. They felt that we were given our unalienable rights by our Creator and that no man can break these truths. So on July 4, 1776. The Congress publicly announced to the world the unanimous decision of the American Colonies to declare themselves free and independent states, absolved from any allegiance to Great Britain and so was the proclamation we have held dear for more than 200 years.

  The Declaration of Independence; “When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which Laws of nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation“.

  “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” As we all know, the declaration continues on to say that government should be instituted among men, and that they derive their just power from the consent of the governed. Our nation already had a Constitution (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union) and it had a Congress, So the wheels were now in motion and we became a nation. Eleven years later our New Nation found it’s self in financial trouble and with defiance from many angles and degrees (like today‘s situation). So a small group of delegates convened in Philadelphia to create a new Constitution for the new Nation. Meeting in what is now Independence Hall, they sought to “form a more perfect Union” and establish a government that would “secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity.” Their challenge was to create the institutional arrangements for limiting powers and securing the rights promised in the Declaration of Independence, while preserving the Republican form of government that reflected the consent of the governed. The solution was to create a strong government of adequate but limited powers, all carefully enumerated in a written constitution. The Constitution was ratified in 1789 and has secured our fundamental rights, providing for an unprecedented degree of human freedom and at the same time upholding the rule of law. To this day our Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution stand as a proud symbols of Courage, Liberty and a warning to tyrants worldwide that we are a strong and free people, we will defend our rights and freedoms against all enemies foreign and domestic. And so we have it:


  The Constitution of The United States; We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 

  The Bill of Rights; When the Constitution was proposed in 1787 in Philadelphia and as ratified by the states, contained very few individual rights guarantees, as the framers were primarily focused on an effective federal government. Although the framers, and notably James Madison, it’s principle architect, believed that the Constitution protected liberty primarily through division of powers that made it difficult for an oppressive majorities to form and capture powers to be used against minorities. The Bill of Rights had fierce debates over its necessity. The Delegates also probably feared that debate over liberty guarantees might prolong or even threaten the fiercely-debated compromise that had been made in 1787.

  In the ratification debate, the Anti-Federalist opposed to the Constitution, complained that the new system threatened liberties, and suggested that if the delegates had truly cared about protecting individual rights, they would have included provisions that accomplished that. With ratification in serious doubt, federalist announced that they were willing to take up the matter with a series of amendments; to be called the Bill of Rights, soon after ratification and the first congress comes into session. Thomas Jefferson, who did not attend the Constitutional Convention, in December 1787, sent a letter addressed to Madison called the omission of a Bill of rights a major mistake: “A bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth.” So with much debate, as some members of Congress argued that a listing of rights of the people was a silly exercise, in that all the listed rights inherently belonged to citizens, and that nothing in the Constitution gave the Congress the power to take them away. It was even suggested that the Bill Of rights might reduce liberty by giving force to the argument that all rights not specifically listed could be infringed upon. In the end we owe the opponents to the Constitution a debt of gratitude, for without their complaints, there would be no Bill of Rights. Thomas Jefferson wrote, “There has just been opposition enough” to force adoption of a Bill of Rights, but not to drain the federal government of it’s essential “energy.” George Washington agreed: They have given the rights of man a full and fair discussion, and explained them in so clear and forcible manner as cannot fail to make a lasting impression.



 They say that time changes everything and we have seen our share of changes and challenges to our Constitution. Somewhere warranted while others have questionable motives. Our freedoms have been under attack from the very beginning first by the Anti-federalist, The war of 1812, The Civil War, Spanish American War and then by our countries Political and social Grievances. 




The Democrats were once the Champion of limited government and low taxation.


They had beliefs such as the, Jeffersonian Maxim- “eternal vigilance is the price of liberty”- reflected not just a populist suspicion that who put on airs and graces are untrustworthy, but the abiding convictions that power corrupts and must therefore be severely curtailed. 

Nineteenth century Democrat’s trusted the common people and worried more about the prospect of tyranny being imposed from above than of anarchy breaking out below.

The government that governs least governs best.” Jefferson. (Democratic-Republican)

The same fear of power’s tendency to corrupt made Democrats prefer state and local to national government. After all, keeping politicians honest seemed somewhat more feasible if they were not way off in Washington. The ever-present threats of tyranny similarly ensure that early Democrats liked their definition of the U.S. Constitution to be strict.

Given this mistrust in government principles, early democrats believed in keeping the federal budget balanced. If a surplus arose in the federal treasury due to the sale of land or increased revenue from import duties, Democrats wanted congress to pass the surplus back to the states. Democrats were also hostile to taxes. This was the partly due to the fact that early farm settlers actually had very little hard cash. Taxes were still so suspect in Andrew Jackson’s time that Democrats argued among themselves over just how abominable the newly approved import tariff actually was. Some denied it’s value altogether, others pleaded that there was a genuine need in the tax, threatening secession if none came.

Grover Cleveland in 1884, exclaimed, “Every cent taken from the people beyond that required for their protection by the government, is no better than robbery.


So what happened to the Ideals of the Democrats? For they have surly lost their way. They now accept all of the things they originally feared and have followed the likes of Franklin D. Roosevelt (Progressive) Harry Truman (Democrat), Jimmy carter(Democrat), Harry Reid(Progressive), Nancy Pelosi (Progressive), The Clintons (Hillary-Progressive, William- Moderate/Progressive), Debbie Wassermann Shultz(Progressive, Puppet) and Barack Obama(Marxist, socialist, Progressive). They have allowed the federal government to abuse it’s authority in the guise, “for the under-privileged, for the people, for the minority” and are anti-rich. They have it in for the very people who would hire them, so they could provide for their families. All the while the democrat politician’s break federal trade rules and make loads of money by insider trading. They use their connections to help their friends and also to protect their agendas. These politician’s illegally push new and unconstitutional laws and mandates without fear of retribution. We have Supreme Court Justices who legislate from the bench and look outside of the Constitution and the people of the United States for their rulings. They no longer believe in “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights that among these are life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” They now rely on the government to provide these at the expense of others. Without concern for what it is doing to their children and their grandchildren who now have an insurmountable debt before they are even born. What will life be for these future generations, if we keep the course and are only concerned with our generation and what we have or do not have?

They now accept the new enemies of our nation, that being the infiltration of the Socialist-progressives into their own party. They accept social reforms that will only make the current economic and social problems worse. They are accepting the separation of the classes and their envy and jealousy of those who have. Little do the Democrat supporters realize the secrets that have gone on in Washington, the agendas and deceit to the American public, which have even plagued the Republican Party and its supporters since the early 20th and now into the 21st century. They have made for a very volatile situation and will eventually come to a disastrous end.


Our Enemies:


  Our Republic and the beliefs our founders had when they Declared their Independence from England and the tyranny bestowed upon our colonies,  and then Creating a more perfect form of government. Though the Constitution of The United States has had its share of enemies; As Stated earlier, we have been in a few wars, in addition to those we have been involved in two world wars, the Korean war (UN), Vietnam, Bay of Pigs, Grenada, Invasion of Panama, Persian Gulf war, Intervention of Bosnia and Herzegovina (NATO), Invasion of Afghanistan, Invasion of Iraq. But even though we have been attacked first in several of these wars, we have never been attacked so extensively and thoroughly, as we have been by the Federal Reserve Banks and other financial institutes such as Wall Street, Unions, The socialist based Progressive party (formally known as the Democrat Party) and our own greed, envy, laziness and making heroes of our celebrities and athletes, While dishonoring our Soldiers, Sailors, Marines and Airmen.  

  The Federal Reserve is a privately owned and is not a function of the United States Government. Also known as “The Fed,” it is the central bank of The United States. In its role as a central bank, the Fed is a bank for other banks and a bank for the federal government. It was created as a pretense to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. Over the years, its role in banking and the economy has expanded. Congress created the Federal Reserve System with the signing of the Federal Reserve Act by President Woodrow Wilson on December 23, 1913. The main functions of the Federal Reserve are as follows:


Conducting the nation’s monetary policy to help maintain employment, keep prices stable, and keep interest rates relatively low.

Supervising and regulating banking institutions to make sure they are safe places for people to keep their money and protect consumers’ rights.

Providing financial services to depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign central banks, including playing a major role in clearing checks, processing electronic payment, and distributing coin and paper money to nation’s banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, and savings banks.

Conducts research on the U.S. and regional economies.

Distributes information about the economy through publications, speeches, educational seminars, and web sites.



As early as 1923, 10 short years after the establishment of the FED (Federal Reserve), it started to have issues and nearly avoided a depression. But we were not so lucky on October 1929. Due to the FEDS  inadequate handling of speculative lending, the stock market crashed, and the nation fell into the worst depression in its history. From 1930 to 1933 nearly 10,000 banks failed. In 1933 congress passed the Glass-Steagall act. This separated commercial and investment banking and required the use of government securities as collateral for Federal Reserve notes. This act also established The Federal deposit Insurance (FDIC). Following the privately held Federal Reserve banks role in Causing the Great Depression, Roosevelt recalled gold and silver certificates, effectively ending the gold and any other metallic standard. FDR literally stole gold from the citizens, ordering them to hand their gold to the privately held Federal Reserve Bank in exchange for pieces of paper. In issuing this executive order and others, FDR exceeded jurisdiction and committed high treason by assuming law making power exclusively limited to the legislature. During this era the banksters whom FDR worked for took control of the U.S.A., literally implementing Socialism (social Security), assuming control of the Media (FCC), control of private corporations (SEC) and unconstitutional socialistic taxation through a private company called the IRS. He basically made the citizens of The U.S. A., the collateral for all loans the Fed makes to the U.S. government. This is the era of the progressive movement, which has worked hard to rewrite the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, they have ties with the Communist Party and both have merged with the Democrat Party. The Progressives and the Fed are working hand and hand to restructure the U.S. and through many outlets, have caused the decay of our economy, and the desperate state it is in today. They use reforms and regulations to limit and restructure how we do business and manipulate the markets in order to keep us, the people separated. There are also other influences in which we need to worry about. The Trilateral Commission and the labor unions are the most dangerous influences in American politics today. The progressive movement in the United States and those from Europe, want to join all of the Federal reserves and create a World Bank. These groups like the Trilateral Commission would like a one world government which relies on the Central bank as the majority power. We were warned by Thomas Jefferson who said:


“If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered.”

“I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. Already they have raised up a moneyed aristocracy that has set the government at defiance. The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, whom it properly belongs.”


We were also again warned by Abraham Lincoln who said:


“The money powers prey upon the nation in times of peace and conspire against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than a monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, and more selfish than bureaucracy. It denounces as public enemies, all who question it’s methods or throw light upon it’s crimes. I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me and the bankers in the rear. Of the two, the one at my rear is my greatest foe.. Corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money powers of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in the hands of a few, and the republic is destroyed.”


The Progressive Party:


  Reform movements have always been with us. They reach back to the very beginning with the ant-federalist. The abolitionist who wanted to drive what many felt was the great moral wrong of slavery. Woman’s rights, Temperance movement, dealt with woman’s issues. Compensation for the declining importance of rural areas due to increasing urbanization of America brought about the Farm Movement. Progressivism was rooted in the belief, certainly not shared by all, that man was capable of improving the lot of all within society. As such, it was a rejection of Social Darwinism, the position taken by many rich powerful figures of the day.


How Progressivism, Socialism, and Communism all share a common bond: Collectivism.

  As a political and economic system, socialism is government ownership and management of the means of production and distribution of goods, the control of money(FED) and the abolition of profit and private property. These ideas also describe communism and progressivism.


  Socialism originated at the end of the 18th century in several “social studies.” The studies evaded the Enlightenment’s (cultural movement of intellectuals in the 18th century Europe)giant strides in providing jobs and raising the standard of living of hundreds of thousands who had been far worse off before the advent of the Industrial Revolution.


  In the 1840s, the term socialism was coined to describe a militant form of socialism. Marx and Engels used the word in the title of their work, The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848. They both called themselves socialists, and Marx’s works remain the basis of socialist thought.


  Progressivism started sometime after the Civil War as an attempt to help poor people through self-help programs operated by private charities. Progressives seized the effort. They, too, evaded the advances achieved by the Industrial Revolution.


  As early as the 1890s, progressives elected politicians who promised to take over utilities, improve city services and tenement housing codes. By 1903 a wide range of progressive politics and economic ideas were adopted to regulate railroads and utilities. They pressured government to raise corporate taxes. They advocated workmen’s compensations (paid for by businesses) and child labor laws, which denied income to the very poor.


  In 1906 progressives passed the Pure Food and Drug Act and the meat Inspection Act. In 1913 progressives established the Federal Reserve. In 1914, they established the Federal Trade Commission and the Anti-Trust Act., extending government regulation over business. They again raised corporate taxes, organized railroad commission to set rates and establish a conservation commission.


  World War I interrupted the progressives out of controlled lumbering towards total government control of the economy. The movement resumed with the Franklin Roosevelt’s administration, although now referred

To as the welfare State. Another name same Ideas.


  A vocal minority supported Socialism with government ownership of the means of production. They were strong backers of prohibition. Today the progressive movement, along with the communist party has overtaken the Democrat party. The things they have on their agenda these days are Socialized medicine, environmental restrictions on industries and the people, mining restrictions, driving restrictions, and flying restriction. They support gun laws and the end to the use of fossil fuels and other carbon base fuels. They support Unions and they are partnered with the Feds. Their beliefs are a drastic contradiction to the beliefs of our founders. Our Constitution explicitly states the individual’s right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Enumerated, too, are freedoms that follow from individual rights, such as, for example the freedom to peaceably assemble, the freedom to petition the government to redress wrongs, the freedom to keep and bear arms, and so forth.


  The founders were heavily influenced by certain philosophers, among them Adam Smith (Spontaneous Order), Charles Montesquieu (separation of powers), and especially John Locke (natural rights); they were also influenced by their faith, personal experiences, and knowledge of history. (Including the rise and fall of the Roman Empire). Edmund Burke, a British Statesman and thinker, was an early defender of the American Revolution and an advocate of representative government.


  In a civil society, the individual has the responsibility to respect the unalienable rights of others and the values, customs and traditions, tried and tested over time and passed from one generation to the next, that establish society’s cultural identity. He is responsible for attending to his own well-being and that of his family. And he has a duty as a citizen to contribute voluntarily to the welfare of his community through good works. The individual is recognized and accepted as more than an abstract statistic or faceless member of some group; rather he is unique, a spiritual being with a soul and a conscience. He is free to discover his own potential and pursue his own legitimate interest, tampered, however by a moral order that has it’s foundations in faith and guides his life and all human life through the prudent exercise of judgment. In a civil society, private property and liberty are inseparable. The individual’s right to live freely and safely and pursue happiness includes the right to acquire and possess property, which represents the fruits of his own intellectual and/or physical labor. The illegitimate denial or reduction in size, extent or importance of his private property enslaves him to another and denies him his liberty.   



Wants vs. Needs = entitlements


  Today people will buy a cell phone, cable television, IPods, expensive cars or a beer. They even pay cover charges to get into a facility, but let an insurance company and/or a doctor’s office require co-pay or send them a bill and everyone complains. When it comes to things we want, we most always pay. We will pay for the entrance fees or cover charges, But, when it comes to something we need, we think we shouldn’t have to pay fees and many of us want it provided, but do not want to pay for it. When I grew up we had a Television, and if we were lucky, we would receive only three or four channels, now we can select over 200 channels and yet we still complain, first about the costs and then when it has an issue we get upset. We had rotary phones and no answering machines, so when someone called they just missed us and we would catch up latter. Now we have cell phones and they cost us money to own. The money in which we are charged, goes to pay the company that provides us with these services for their research, development and the services, they provide, but let it take a few seconds to receive a text “and damn we are pissed!” And now we want these services to be given to us, even when we cannot pay for them. Again, depending on those who can afford this privilege to pay for their phone. Health care, food and other services and goods are not a right, they are a privilege you earn, when you pay for the insurance, care, products or these services with money or other agreements you have made with these providers. Some employers will assist you with insurances as a way to give their employee additional income. Our founders intended us to work for our way, that we all can pursue happiness, but not on the backs of others. Those of us who have worked hard and have taken on the risks have made these pursuits profitable, and should not be penalized, by government to care for those, who rather take the easy road and not earn their way.


“We must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt. We must make our selection between economy and liberty or profusion and servitude. If we run into such debts as that we must be taxed in our meat in our drink, in our necessities and comforts, in our labors and in our amusements, for our calling and our creeds… our people.. Must come to labor sixteen hours in twenty-four, give earnings of fifteen of these to the government for their debts and daily expenses; and the sixteenth being insufficient to afford us bread, we must live.. We have not time to think, no means of calling the miss-managers to account, but be glad to obtain subsistence by hiring ourselves to rivet their chains on the necks of our fellow suffers. Our landholders, too… retaining indeed the title and stewardship of estates called theirs, but held in trust for the treasury, must…be contented with penury, obscurity and exile… private fortunes are destroyed by public as well as by private extravagance. This tendency of all human governments. A departure from principle becomes a precedent for a second; that second for a third; and so on, till the bulk of society is reduced to mere automatons of misery, to have no sensibilities left but for sinning and suffering… and the fore horse of this frightful team is the public debt. Taxation follows that, and in its train wretchedness and oppression.” Thomas Jefferson







News, Friday, November 4, 1949


Mr. Truman's St. Paul, Minn., pie-for-everybody speech last night

reminded us that, at the tail-end of the recent session of Congress,

Representative Clarence J. Brown (R-Ohio) jammed into the

Congressional Record the following poem, describing its author only

as “a prominent Democrat of the State of Georgia”:






Father, must I go to work?

No, my lucky son. We're

living now on Easy Street On

dough from Washington.


We've left it up to Uncle Sam, So

don't get exercised. Nobody

has to give a damn – We've

all been subsidized.


But if Sam treats us all so well And

feeds us milk and honey. Please,

daddy, tell me what the hell He's

going to use for money.


Don't worry, bub, there's not a hitch In

this here noble plan – He

simply soaks the filthy rich And

helps the common man.


But, father, won't there come a time When

they run out of cash And

we have left them not a dime When

things will go to smash?


My faith in you is shrinking, son, You

nosy little brat; You

do too damn much thinking, son, to

be a Democrat.



Today’s public Schools:


  There is a saying, “get out of poverty, and attend a public school.” Well my friends it is these schools that are the biggest contributor to the poverty. We have dumb down America to the point where all they are taught is what the government wants and they teach the test. It is a proven fact that private school (including home schooling), have the highest degree of successful people after they graduate and many of these children excel in colleges. The public school system has become an indoctrination system to the new world order that the progressives are pushing for. Our children do not learn about the U.S. Constitution, or our founders, they do not learn about government or financial matters that will affect them in real life. Penmanship isn’t a concern and speech is not a valued subject anymore. They would prefer we learn about other languages without ensuring we speak ours correctly, first. Today the emphasis is on accepting social programs, illegal aliens are ok, that traditional American values are bad. In many school systems they have stopped grading and they have also stopped recognizing superior students, as they do not want the emphasis on the competitive nature of the human race and to protect the feelings of those who have trouble or just do not care. They teach children before a respectable age about sex and homosexuality. Many schools have even stopped assigning homework or allowing students to bring home their books, maybe they do not want the parents to know what is being taught. They teach socialistic values and that the Republican Party is anti this and pro that. They have taken physical fitness out of the curriculum at the same time they criticize the weight of the children in the United States. The school systems have over stepped their bonds with the civil liberties of these students and yet they ignore the poor performance of the very teachers who we expect to have the knowledge and capacity to teach our children. And yet the teachers unions protect them and allow them to remain. It was said by the teachers union that the children are not their concern, it is the teachers and what they can do for the teachers that matter. I say that if we are going to keep the practice of public schools, we must first improve them by first eliminating the teachers unions, then we need to put it back into the hands of the citizens of the state and the communities, they reside and pay taxes in. These communities should hold their school boards with the ensuring that the quality of the teachers are of the highest degree with testing and that the studies are geared for moving into the real world after graduation. The emphasis on college prep should be lowered and teaching of trades should be raised to the highest level. We have taken the idea of attending college to an extreme, it should be a place for those who would like to go beyond a basic education and trade preparation. College should be a place to become a Doctor a Lawyer, a scientist and other vocations that require further studies. This country needs to get back to prentice, apprenticeships or journeymen for advancing skills not taught in the schools. History has shown that some of the most powerful, creative and valuable people to society and to the world have had less than a college education. We must support our school systems as a keystone of our children’s lives, allowing for them to be successful people in our great society. We cannot solve our nation’s ills if we do not start with our children. A last note on schools is that the liberal invasion into colleges needs to be addressed. We have heard enough from liberal professors. Our colleges have even allowed an unrepentant terrorist teach our children. William Ayers Member of the Democratic Socialist of America, who bombed the Pentagon. Radicals like Ward Churchill are also indoctrinating our children while teaching as professors in or colleges.




  How to deal with our failing immigrate problem. I cannot say what is the best way to handle those who are in this country already that is a difficult solution. As we know that if we tried to round up those already here we would inevitably step on the rights of those who are legal citizens. We would also have those who support the illegal’s hiding them just like the abolitionists did prior to the Emancipations Proclamation and the Civil War. Our national debt is also so high it would be financially impossible to attempt such an exercise. I think the solution would be for the illegal’s to be required to report to their local Immigration department and apply for citizenship, these people will then have a background check and then a series of requirements, they will have to accomplish before becoming citizens and obtaining all constitutional rights promised to all American citizens. They will then be given a citizen in training card and have 5 years to obtain the goals set in the program. If an illegal does not cooperate and apply for his card, will be deported when he is found within 2 days of being taken into custody. Any employer who hires an illegal will for the first offense be fined and for a second offense loses his business license. All enforcement will be in accordance of the U.S. Constitution and these will be done on the state level. The only obligation the Federal Government will have is the protection of our borders. We spend billions of dollars annually to have a forward presence in Europe and to have military presence in countries that require our assistance to protect them. We never get any financial assistance with our military aid and protection in those places and yet we do nothing to protect our own borders. This is the primary Constitutional responsibility of the Federal Government and should be done by positioning military bases in our border towns. We should place the Border patrol and The TSA under the department of the Army. The National Guard, and border patrol along with limited active units will be assigned to these bases and will conduct patrols of the boarders. Some bases should be air bases. We should also place a fence along our southern boarder along with mapped out mine fields between these fences. Northern border if the need arises. We should treat our borders as if it is an avenue of approach from our enemies. Maybe in time when the world  becomes a better place and this need to protect our nation from good intentioned illegals and the criminals from entering our nation illegally. But for now we have to protect ourselves from those who would hurt us. I would also put an end to those groups who would claim the border towns and states are illegally taken property of Mexico and the Latino’s, and do illegal actions for their cause. 




  We have dealt with terrorism from the beginning, our first greatest test was the Barbary Pirates who were of Arab and Tunis backing. In fact they were blackmailing terrorist, hiding behind a self-serving interpretation of their Islamic faith by embracing select tracts and ignoring others. Borrowing from the Christian Crusades of centuries past, they used history as a mandate for doing the western world one better. The guising European powers had been buying them off for years.


On March 28, 1786 Jefferson and Adams detailed what they saw as a main issue:


“ We took the liberty to make some inquiries concerning the grounds of their pretensions to make war upon a Nation who had done no injury, and observed that we considered all mankind as our friends who had done us no wrong, nor had given us any provocation. The Ambassador answered us that it was founded on the laws of their prophet, that it was written in the Koran, that all nations who should not have acknowledge their authority were sinners, that it was their right and duty to make war upon them whenever they could be found, and to make slaves of all they could take as prisoners, and that every Muslim slain in Battle was sure to go to Paradise.”


  Jefferson wanted a military solution, but decades of blackmailing the American Republic and enslaving its citizens would continue until a new American nation realized that only answer to terrorism was force.


  So the new nation without declaring war attacked, the new Navy was directed to protect shipping and to seize vessels belonging to the Bey of Tripoli. We finally attacked Tripoli in 1804 and the hostilities ended in 1805.


 So we are not new to the act of terrorism on our country and its interest. We learned early that negotiating and paying bribes were the wrong way to deal with these threats. But, yet we still pay these bribes.


  So why do the progressives continue to fight military responses to undeniable treats and acts of terror. I have heard people in this country say things like; “We are losing friends in the world with our aggression upon the enemy.” I would first say to these people, it is our government’s responsibility to protect the people of this nation and its interest above all. I would secondly ask, what kind of friend is he, if he turns his favors from us, because we defended ourselves. Who needs friends like this. We have for too long bought our friends. We give aid and comfort (bribes), to nations who would do us harm, if not for the financial aid or other support. We protect Leaders of nations, who have questionable character and actions, because the alternative might(?) be worse. We pay billions of dollars in aid, to countries, just so we will be in their favor and they will not cut oil supplies from reaching us. I say, it is time to be strong and lead, we have proven nothing over the centuries, when we were weak. We were weak prior to WWII and we were attacked and even then there were some who still didn’t want us to get into the war. We were weak In Korea and let Bureaucrats, run the war instead of the people who have the military know how. So now we are still there in a stalemate that continues to drain or budget daily, and the treat that the conflict would or could continuing at any moment. We made a similar mistake in Vietnam, we allowed bureaucrats, make military decisions and our congress fight on the who‘s, what’s, where’s and why’s, instead of doing the job. So this time we pulled out instead of just doing the job. We have fought twice in Iraq, since 1991, first to free the Kuwaitis, from the wrongful invasion by an enemy that for years we aided, because, again, we were afraid another enemy (Iran) may invade Iraq. But since the President and the Congress were so afraid that our nation would lose friends, we stopped short of getting rid of the enemy, which wasn’t the people of the Iraqi Nation, but it’s leaders. There where Iraqi’s who were expecting and even counting on us to continue on and invade but we didn’t and thousands of Iraqi’s were killed for their militant moves, they thought we had their backs, but we were weak. So what happens in 1993, we were attacked by an Extremist group of Muslims called Al-Qaeda, this group lead by a Islamic mad man, Osama bin Laden, with ties to Iraq, attacked our nation, with the bombing of the World Trade center. Our response was to allow our FBI and other agencies apprehend the suspects and then put them in prison with large sentences, but we did nothing to inflict punishment to the group or groups, or even the nations who supported and harbored these groups.


  This brings us to the second attack on the World Trade center less than 10 years later. An attack that is only rivaled by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. We responded this time with courage, rage and fortitude. We sent our military into action invading Afghanistan the nation who harbored these radicals (Islamic mad men) and extremist. The President then declared war on all supporters of Al-Qaeda and Radicals who would do this country harm and so we invaded Iraq, we had some friends in these endeavors, but with our Bureaucrat’s again interfering and a Congress full of Progressives, we had again stifled and harmed the war efforts. Again as with Vietnam, the people started to get angry with the war and the people fought the war efforts. We started to blame the president and his administration and were looking for all reasons to end the war before the desired and rightful end came about. These protests again aided the Progressive’s in congress to continue to stifle the war efforts turning what could have been a much quicker end to the hostilities into a battle between our people and the administration of President George W. Bush. So in the end we have just pulled out of Iraq, more than 10 years after the war began and we are still in Afghanistan. We have finally this past year killed the leader of Al-Qaeda, and have plans to withdraw although I do not believe we have nor will we have these radicals under control. We spent Billions of dollars to free Iraqi’s and support a new government, but our actions and inactions between 1991 and 2012 have been weak and so we were not able to end this threat to our nation. We need to keep bureaucrats out of wars. Once the decision and goals behind the decision is made we need to just get the job done. We lost more men and woman due to the media and politicians, than we would have if they just stayed out of it and allowed our military leaders to do the job “period.” 


Liberties Lost:


“Those who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.” Benjamin Franklin  


 As the country enters its second post 9/11 decade, virtually all of our most fundamental rights have been affected for the worse, with little or no awareness among the populace at large. This ignorance is no accident, but the product of manipulation and complex web of deceit among our leading politicians, all branches of government and main stream media. All of which are trying to outdo each other in pandering to our basic fears and instincts. These include illegal warrantless wire taping as required by the national Security act, Rule of law, if the rule of law means anything, it means that everyone is subject to the same rules and those rules are fairly applied. ”A government of laws, not of men” John Adams

 Yet we now have a much more arbitrary system of justice, in which people can be deemed second-class citizens and have their assets seized, have their travel and other rights burdened, and stigmatized, imprisoned or even killed by essentially un-reviewable executive fiat.


That the net effect of new approaches, which impose serious burdens without the traditional checks and balances and independent reviews previously enshrined in law:


Asset seizure section 106 of Patriot Act, which has seized property of others on legally dubious grounds in the United States not to mention other illegal and unconstitutional offenses.

The notoriously error-ridden “watch list” and “no fly” lists which have thrown innocent individual into hell, from which there’s no easy escape, setting president for more abuse by government. By “watch-lists,”

The TSA body scanners, which do not work to detect the plastic explosives which were their supposed reason for being, but have shown to pose risk to privacy and health, disproportionately burdening a vulnerable population their children, the elderly, religious objectors, and the inhumane compromised who risk serious harm from the cumulative effects of long-term exposure to radiation.

The risk that anyone could be subject to a military, commission, a secondary justice system in which the executive branch is judge, jury, and executioner and in which a person may find themselves arbitrarily placed without principle distinction simply because they have been ladled a “terrorist” I myself writing this and other statements against this current administration could be place on the list. I have another strike against me and that is that I am a retired Navy. The department of homeland security and Janet Napolitano, have placed returning veterans among the terrorist, retired military, tea party and other right wing extremist, conservative radio talk show hosts, conservative or militant Bloggers, and ordinary citizens as “terror’ threats. They now have even added Israel on the list of rogue terror states.

Profiling, whether it is on race, religious, ethnic and national origin, despite official rhetoric and policies against it. Facilitated by reliance on a (likely unconstitutional) broad exception relating to national security.

We have and continue to have specific infringements of fundamental rights and our national identity.

Our god given rights have been removed, we have children being suspended from school for prayers, for wearing the American flag, for reciting the pledge of allegiance, singing or saying God blessed America. We have children who get in trouble for their religious beliefs and association, being dropped from programs just because of their beliefs. We have neighborhoods and other community areas that have banned the American flag from being flown. Since when is it wrong to be a proud American and to show this pride, let one man tell me that my flag needs to be removed from my yard, home, automobile, or clothing and it will be “on!”

“Does government fear us? Or do we fear government? When the people fear the government, tyranny has found victory. The federal government is our servant, not our masters!” Thomas Jefferson   


Taxation and States rights:


“Congress went beyond merely enacting an income tax law and repealed Article IV of the Bill of Rights, by empowering the tax collector to do the very things from which that article says we were to be secure. It opened our homes, our papers and our effects to the prying eyes of government agents and set the stage for searches of our books and vaults and for inquiries into our private affairs whenever the tax men might decide, even though there might not be any justification beyond mere cynical suspicion.

   “The income tax is bad because it has robbed you and me of the

   guarantee of privacy and respect for our property that were given to

   us under Article IV of the Bill of Rights. This invasion is absolute

   and complete  as far as the amount of tax that can be assessed in

   concerned. Please remember that under the Sixteenth Amendment,

   congress can take 100 percent of our income any time it wants to. As

   a matter of fact, right now it is imposing a tax as high as 91

   percent. This is downright confiscation and cannot be defended on

   any other grounds.

   “the income tax is bad because it was conceived in class hatred, is

   an instrument of vengeance and plays right into the hands of the

   communist. It employs the vicious communist principle of taking from

   each according to his accumulation of the fruits of his labor and

   giving to others according to their needs, regardless of whether

   those needs are the result of indolence or lack of pride, self

   -respect, personal dignity or other attributes of men.

   “The income tax is fulfilling the Marxist prophecy that the surest

   way to destroy a capitalist society is by steeply graduated taxes on

   income and heavy levies upon the estates of people when they die.

   “As matters now stand, if our children make the most of their

   capabilities and training, they will have to give most of it to the

   tax collector and so become slaves of the government. People cannot

   pull themselves up by the bootstraps anymore because the tax

   collector gets the boots and the straps as well.

   “The income tax is bad because it is oppressive to all and

   discriminates particularly against those people who prove themselves

   most adept at keeping  the wheels of business turning and creating

   maximum employment and high standards of living for their fellow men.

   “I believe that a better way to raise revenue not only can be found

   but must be found because I am convinced that the present system is

   leading us right back to the very tyranny from which those, who

   established this land of freedom, risked their lives, their fortunes

   and their sacred honor to forever free themselves…” T. Colman Andrews

   Commissioner of Internal Revenue 1953 - 1955


Karl Marx had a vision of his perfect utopia for society, although it had nothing to do with freedom. Our founders felt for a free society we would have to limit taxation as in Article IV of the Bill of Rights. Since FDR we have slowly become that socialist utopia, and as things stand we will continue down this road, unless we repeal the sixteenth amendment and find a better system to raise revenue. Through my research I feel that the fair tax H.R. 25 would be the best solution to the governments ill’s as far as taxation is concerned. We have seen others suggest such as a flat tax but that leads to the government still having too much control. I heard Herman Cain who was my first choice for the Presidency pushes his 999 idea, which combined a flat and a consumption tax. I think at this point any would be a good place to start. But I feel that the Fair Tax, which raises revenue through consumption versus income and would eliminate corporate taxes bringing companies back to the U.S. and providing Jobs is the best choice. But hey who am I to say.


  We need to return government issues back to the states as directed in the constitution. Our representatives are better controlled when they are home. We need to get away from a federal government running finances  and dispensing it from one state to another like they do between the rich and the poor. It is not the haves vs. the have not’s. If a man cannot handle his finances then it is of his own fault and he needs to find his own path back to prosperity and happiness and it is the same for the states. If California wants to indulge in supporting social programs and acceptance of illegal’s then that is their problem and not the problem of The state or the people of Connecticut or Mississippi. They need to as the man does find their own way back to prosperity and happiness.



Lobbyist and Lawyers


  It is a pretty sad state of affairs when two little children can no longer make lemonade and sit on their lawn and sell it for a quarter or more. It is sad that you can go door to door to sell girl scout cookies and yet in some areas you cannot sell them from your yard or at the corner market. It is sad when a man who is jobless and wants to start his own business like driving a taxi and many other occupations may not just buy what he needs for this trade and then start to sell his product. We have allowed the lobbyist and lawyers to aid the powerful large corporation and the Fed control us through regulations and laws. Our nation has far too many lawyers, and with this many lawyers all trying to get ahead of the next, with all kinds of time on their hands sit and research ways to write regulations many in the pretense to protect the public or the businessman. It is a novel idea to have lawyers and other political ambitious people, try and better their careers, but not through the intrusion to liberties promised in the Constitution and the Bill of rights. We really need to place limitations on the lobbyist and have a tenth amendment review committee, review all federal laws and regulations to include amendments and policies and taxation rules. We then need to have state and local governments set up committees made up of the populous to review and eliminate all laws policies and regulations which may be questionable in regards to the freedoms and constitutional rights of the people, no matter of how good their intentions were. Yes, the federal government and the state and local governments have the right to make policy under the constitution, but these rules have to be properly written and administrated within the foundation of the constitution and freedoms so promised. We were founded with the idea that we were to be free to police ourselves and to be free, without infringing on the rights of others. Yes, our founders believed in a government, governed with the rule of law, but they did not intend that laws rule the people. We have become the leading nation in laws. We have made police and other authorities have more power than they can properly manage, we have way too many law enforcement departments, most of which do not even talk to each other and when a police officer makes arrests most of the time they are not even sure what to charge you with, they wait until you are already incarcerated and then either the department comes up with charges or the District Attorney who is a politician in their own right, comes up with some charges to fit and get a conviction. A DA with no convictions has no future and will never become a lobbyist of senator, congressman, judge, attorney general, federal or supreme court judge. Our courts and prisons are so over full, with people who in many people’s minds have committed no crimes. They have just broken laws created by bureaucrats, lobbyist and lawyers with career ambitions.  To back this statement up you can read John Stossel’s reports and read his books. One of his best is Illegal everything.  


Big oil


  “Big Oil,” I continually hear this said on the news by the media cronies and the gullible people who are not educated in our government’s ways and the involvement of the Fed’s.


  The oil companies are not to blame for our woes in fuel prices and where we purchase oil. It is the federal government’s interference in all matters of oil. Starting with the prevention of drilling within our own boarders and the end to the dependency of foreign oil. Also the taxation of the fuel we purchase. The U.S. government makes more per gallon of gasoline than does the oil companies. There is something wrong with this. The worlds markets are controlled by the governments and the Federal Banks who continuously play a game with how, where and when oil can be drilled. They also antagonize the nations in which we have issues with and supply us with the oil as a means to influence the prices and the market. None of these policies are to protect the environment nor is it to protect the U.S. or worlds consumers. It is a game of chess with the people of this nation and around the world the pawns. Let’s take oil out of the hands of the FED’S and the U.S. government.




  This is a word I am getting tired of hearing in this nation.


Definition of OFFEND


intransitive verb


a : to transgress the moral or divine law : sin <if it be a sin to covet honor, I am the most offending soul alive — Shakespeare>

b : to violate a law or rule : do wrong <offend against the law>


a : to cause difficulty, discomfort, or injury <took off his shoe and removed the offending pebble>

b : to cause dislike, anger, or vexation <thoughtless words that offend needlessly>

transitive verb


a : violate, transgress

b : to cause pain to : hurt


obsolete : to cause to sin or fall


: to cause to feel vexation or resentment usually by violation of what is proper or fitting


If you are offended, by what someone does, or says. That is not directly, directed toward you then you need to grow up. The flying of a Flag on someone’s home, a Christmas display or the words merry Christmas, having a party to celebrate any occasion or any other word or action not directed towards any one person, should not be an issue


  I feel that if you have an issue with something said, done or displayed by another may mean that you are very insecure with yourself or your beliefs, or you are guilty of something. Remember the old line “ Sticks and Stones may break my bones - but names will never hurt me.” or “ to turn the other cheek.” Why do we make the beliefs of others issues which give our politicians reason to take more liberties away. If you do not like something I say or display, unless it will cause physical harm, ignore it because this gives our leaders reason to take more liberties away.

   I believe it is better to tell someone what’s on your mind rather than to lie to protect their feelings. Because when they eventually find out the issue will be worse. A friend is someone who tells you the truth, regardless of the possibility that it will hurt your feelings. A true friend will get over it and realize you were only telling the truth instead of lying.


Our Worldly masters:


   It is time that we stand up to our worldly masters; The Fed, The President(s), The Senate and the House. It is time we return to our core values that made our nation strong. We as a people can chose to be free or we can choose to continue to be slaves to big government and to the bankers (FED).

 Those who want to be free and live happy lives need to come together and defeat the progressive (socialist) movement and unite for the cause of freedom.

 So even though this election may not solve the problems right away we need to stand up to the members of congress and the President and tell them no more. We need to end the career politicians and Say Thank you, but no thank you to the likes of Your Royal Highness, Barack Obama,  Queen Nancy Pelosi, Sir Harry Reid, sir Barney Franks Madam Barbara Boxer, Madam Maxine Waters, Sir John Boener, and the list goes on… We can add a few non Congressional people like The late Sal Alinsky, Ralph Nader, Gloria Steinem, Bill Moyers, Michael Moore, and Bill Maher. Warren Buffet, and Rev Wright


I have given these politicians a royalty name because these people have put themselves above the law, Consider us as the commoners, or have given up on their principles to appease those with the money and the Power. We live in a Republic and not a Democracy, We need to hold our leaders accountable and transparent. We need to rein in power and show no fear to the corporations or to Wall Street. We must eliminate the Fed or at least make it transparent. We need to stop worrying about the rest of the world and worry about ourselves. We do not need to look outside of the constitution for laws or guidance. The president needs to go to the congress for advice and not foreign leaders. We need to stop governing from the bench (Supreme Court) and hold them and all our leaders accountable to the Constitution and to the People…


 “The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government.” Patrick Henry


There was a quote about “Fear”


“The only thing we have to fear is fear it’s self-nameless, unreasoning, unjustified, terror which paralyzes needed efforts to advance.” FDR’s first inaugural speech, March 4, 1933


  Who would have thought that one of the founders of this progressive movement and one of the people responsible of destroying our constitution and freedoms would write something fitting for our era.

I would just have to add on small thing to this and that would be this:


  The only thing we have to fear is fear it’s self-

Or the loss of freedom guaranteed, in our constitution and given to us by our creator. Nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror and tyranny which paralyzes needed efforts to advance the glory of freedom.


The people who signed the Declaration of Independence.


   Have you ever wondered what happened to the 56 men who signed the Declaration of Independence? I have heard people say that they were all well to do men who gave nothing and gained a lot due to their action. Well here are the facts:


Five signers were captured by the British as traitors, and tortured before they died. 


Twelve had their homes ransacked and burned. Two lost their sons serving in the Revolutionary Army; another had two sons captured.


Nine of the 56 fought and died from wounds or hardships of the Revolutionary War.


They signed the Declaration, pledging their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor.


What kind of men were they? Twenty-four were lawyers and jurists. Eleven were merchants, nine were farmers and large plantation owners; men of means, well educated. But they signed the Declaration of Independence knowing full well that the penalty would be death if they were captured.


Carter Braxton of Virginia, a wealthy planter and trader, saw his ships swept from the seas by the British Navy. He sold his home and properties to pay his debts, and died in rags.


Thomas McKeam was so hounded by the British that he was forced to move his family almost constantly. He served in the Congress without pay, and his family was kept in hiding. His possessions were taken from him, and poverty was his reward.


Vandals or soldiers looted the properties of Dillery, Hall, Clymer, Walton, Gwinnett, Heyward, Ruttledge, and Middleton.


At the battle of Yorktown, Thomas Nelson Jr, noted that the British General Cornwallis had taken over the Nelson home for his headquarters. He quietly urged General George Washington to open fire. The home was destroyed, and Nelson died bankrupt.

Francis Lewis had his home and properties destroyed. The enemy jailed his wife, who died within a few months.


John Hart was driven from his wife's bedside as she was dying. Their 13 children fled for their lives. His fields and his gristmill were laid to waste. For more than a year he lived in forests and caves, returning home to find his wife dead and his children vanished. A few weeks later he died from exhaustion and a broken heart.


Norris and Livingston suffered similar fates.


Such were the stories and sacrifices of the American Revolution. These were not wild-eyed, rabble-rousing ruffians. They were educated men of means. They had security, but they valued liberty more.

   Standing tall, straight, and unwavering, they pledged: "For the

   support of this declaration, with firm reliance on the protection of

   the divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other, our lives,

   our fortunes, and our sacred honor.


They gave you and me a free and independent America. The history books never told you a lot about what happened in the Revolutionary War. We didn't fight just the British. We were British subjects at that time and we fought our own government!


  So my friends, it is time that we fight back, and fire these treasonous, lying, stealing, and flat out corrupt politicians and their  buddies. We need to elect new people and give them one maybe two terms to prove that they have our freedoms and the constitution in mind when they vote on items before them. If they continue to do us wrong then we need to replace them immediately. If the Constitution could file a lawsuit against our politicians the court case would be ugly.  


 So in conclusion; I would like to say to my fellow Americans, please make an informed decision when you vote, please do not vote on race, or  creed. Do not vote out of fear or emotions. Vote while you still can and vote on the side that will lead us back to the Pursuit of Happiness and freedom.



                                    Michael Mossey

                                    Long Beach, MS

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posted about this on Facebook 2012-09-21 10:55:13 -0400
The Election and what the Federal Government doesn’t want you to know
published this page in Forum 2012-09-21 10:54:53 -0400